The College has developed a number of key section to provide information, guidance and links on a number of forms of abuse and neglect notably the reporting of such issues.

Abuse

  • Physical abuse

    A form of abuse which may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating or otherwise causing physical harm to a child or young person. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces, illness in a child.

  • Emotional Abuse

    This is the emotional maltreatment of another person which intends to either bully, intimidate, belittle or make a person feel inadequate and worthless. This often goes alongside other types of abuse. It may also involve limiting the opportunities of a young person and hindering their development.

  • Peer on Peer abuse

    Young people can abuse other young people. This is generally referred to as peer on peer abuse and can take many forms. This can include (but is not limited to) bullying (including cyberbullying); sexual violence and sexual harassment as well as physical abuse and malicious communications.

People should not be subject to such abuse and if you tell us we will support you.

It is important that the above guidance does not constrain any individuals from reporting abuse - you don't need to characterise the abuse to report it. If the behaviour/actions of others causes you raise it with your tutor (or any member of staff). You can report any issue by using the Report a concern form.

Further guidance on Neglect is given in the section below.

Certain cases of abuse/neglect should/must be reported to the appropriate Authority and we will support any student to make such are report if you notify us - however if you do not have to come via the College to make such reports, indeed for further guidance.

The following sections look at key areas of abuse and provides more information - but if you are still not sure - ask or report concerns to the College.

Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE)
CSE, know the signs

Child Sexual Exploitation involves a victim being targeted and groomed by adults, with the intention of sexually assaulting and/or raping her/him. The children are targeted because they are vulnerable; due to their age.

Grooming can take place in many forms - e.g., online via social media, via mobile phones, or in person. The child will not always realise that (s)he is being groomed. Often the grooming starts with friendship or a relationship, where the offender may supply gifts such as clothes, money, mobile phones, which may progress to the supply of alcohol and drugs. Further information is detailed in the below link (CSE Street Grooming Link)

The offenders are very organised and deliberate in their actions, in some cases working together within a group. They are predatory sex offenders, targeting specifically vulnerable children

Sometimes the children are given lifts and transported around. The offender will usually encourage the child to distance her/himself further from her/his usual family and friends. Soon into this friendship/relationship, sexual assaults and rapes may occur upon the child.

Indicators of such behaviour are detailed in the link below (CSE Indicators link)

If you suspect anyone of been groomed or subject to sexual exploitation you must report this to the College or Police. You can report a concern to the College by using the Report a concern form.

Self Harm and Young People
Upset young person
What is Self-Harm?

The term deliberate self-harm has been used to distinguish it from forms of injury that might be sustained while engaged in high risk behaviours, but that were not intended to cause harm. Deliberate self-harm is used to describe a range of things that people do to themselves in a deliberate and usually hidden way. It can involve:

  • Cutting
  • Burning
  • Scalding
  • Banging or scratching one's own body
  • Breaking bones
  • Hair pulling
  • Swallowing poisonous substances or objects

You can report a concern to the College by clicking on this link.

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

FGM is when a female's genitals are deliberately altered or removed for non-medical reasons. It's also known as 'female circumcision' or 'cutting', but has many other names.

FGM is a form of child abuse. It's dangerous and a criminal offence in the UK, anyone engaged in the College employment has a legal duty to report suspicion of FGM directly to the Police, but if not sure raise suspicion with any Designated Safeguarding Lead or report it via this link.

In terms of FGM
  • there are no medical reasons to carry out FGM
  • it's often performed by someone with no medical training, using instruments such as knives, scalpels, scissors, glass or razor blades
  • children are rarely given anesthetic or antiseptic treatment and are often forcibly restrained
  • it's used to control female sexuality and can cause long-lasting damage to physical and emotional health.

What does it involve?

Female genital mutilation is brutal it involves the removal of the clitoris, inner-and-outer lips of the vagina, and the sewing or stapling together of the two sides of the vulva leaving only a small hole to pass urine and menstruate. Typically FGM is performed with a razor blade on girls between the ages of four and 12, traditionally without anesthetic

"FGM is equivalent to removing in males both the testes and the penis without anaesthetic"

Taina Bien Aime, director of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women.

Indicators of FGM
  • A relative or someone known as a 'cutter' visiting from abroad.
  • A special occasion or ceremony takes place where a girl 'becomes a woman' or is 'prepared for marriage'.
  • A female relative, like a mother, sister or aunt has undergone FGM.
  • A family arranges a long holiday overseas or visits a family abroad during the summer holidays.
  • A girl has an unexpected or long absence from school.
  • A girl struggles to keep up in school.
  • A girl runs away - or plans to run away - from home

Effects of FGM

There are no health benefits to FGM. It can cause serious harm, including:

  • severe and/or constant pain
  • infections, such as tetanus, HIV and hepatitis B and C
  • pain or difficulty having sex
  • infertility
  • bleeding, cysts and abscesses
  • difficulties urinating or incontinence
  • organ damage
  • problems during pregnancy and childbirth, which can be life-threatening for the mother and baby
  • mental health problems, such as depression, flashbacks and self-harm
  • death from blood loss or infections.

Further details:-

https://www.nspcc.org.uk/what-is-child-abuse/types-of-abuse/female-genital-mutilation-fgm/
Modern Day Slavery

Slavery did not end with abolition in the 19th century. Instead, it changed its forms and continues to harm people in every country in the world.

Whether they are women forced into prostitution, men forced to work in agriculture or construction, children in sweatshops or girls forced to marry older men, their lives are controlled by their exploiters, they no longer have a free choice and they have to do as they're told.

They are in slavery.

There are estimated 40.3 million people in modern slavery around the world.

  • 10 million children
  • 24.9 million people in forced labour
  • 15.4 million people in forced marriage
  • 4.8 million people in forced sexual exploitation

Today slavery is less about people literally owning other people - although that still exists - but more about being exploited and completely controlled by someone else, without being able to leave.

Someone is in slavery if they are:
  • forced to work - through coercion, or mental or physical threat;
  • owned or controlled by an 'employer', through mental or physical abuse or the threat of abuse;
  • dehumanised, treated as a commodity or bought and sold as 'property';
  • physically constrained or have restrictions placed on their freedom of movement.

Forms of modern slavery

  • Forced Labor

    any work or services which people are forced to do against their will under the threat of some form of punishment.

  • Debt bondage or bonded labour

    the world's most widespread form of slavery, when people borrow money they cannot repay and are required to work to pay off the debt, then losing control over the conditions of both their employment and the debt.

  • Human trafficking

    involves transporting, recruiting or harbouring people for the purpose of exploitation, using violence, threats or coercion.

  • Descent-based slavery

    where people are born into slavery because their ancestors were captured and enslaved; they remain in slavery by descent.

  • Child slavery

    many people often confuse child slavery with child labour, but it is much worse. Whilst child labour is harmful for children and hinders their education and development, child slavery occurs when a child is exploited for someone else's gain. It can include child trafficking, child soldiers, child marriage and child domestic slavery.

  • Forced and early marriage

    when someone is married against their will and cannot leave the marriage. Most child marriages can be considered slavery.


The Modern Slavery Act 2015 made Modern Day Slavery and :

  • makes prosecuting the traffickers easier by consolidating the existing slavery offences
  • increases sentences for slavery offences
  • bans prosecuting victims of slavery for crimes they were forced to commit by their traffickers, such as drug production or petty thefts
  • introduces child trafficking advocates to better protect trafficked children
  • makes big UK businesses publically report on how they tackle slavery in their global supply chains
  • establishes an independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner to overlook the UK's policies to tackle slaver
  • owned or controlled by an 'employer', through mental or physical abuse or the threat of abuse;
  • dehumanised, treated as a commodity or bought and sold as 'property';
  • physically constrained or have restrictions placed on their freedom of movement.

The facts are that Slavery is still a significant issue in the UK:-

  1. The UK?Government estimates there are tens of thousands people in slavery in Britain today
  2. In 2017, over 5,000 people were referred to British authorities as potential victims of slavery. Up one third from 2016
  3. This includes over 2,000 children
  4. But only 13% of these individuals were assessed to be modern slavery victims at the end of the year.
  5. Of the cases involving people from outside the EU, this figure goes down to less than 3%
  6. Referrals included possible victims from 116 countries
  7. 46% of people referred were in labour exploitation and 34% were in sexual exploitation
  8. Up to 34% of victims of slavery are estimated to be re-trafficked
  9. UK nationals make the biggest group of potential victims
  10. 2016 saw the first conviction and sentencing of a British businessman for human trafficking

Further information on Modern Day Slavery can be found at https://www.antislavery.org/slavery-today/modern-slavery/

The College will support any individual who is subject Slavery. If you are aware of ANYONE who may be a victim of modern day slavery you should notify any member of College Staff and/or complete the information on the report a concern form.

Neglect

Neglect is the ongoing failure to meet a child's basic needs and the most common form of child abuse. A child might be left hungry or dirty, or without proper clothing, shelter, supervision or health care. This can put children and young people in danger. And it can also have long term effects on their physical and mental wellbeing.

Neglect can be a lot of different things, which can make it hard to spot. But broadly speaking, there are 4 types of neglect.

Everyone is encouraged to understand the key signs of neglect

The College will support any individual who is subject to neglect and you should notify any member of College Staff and/or complete the information on the Report a concern form.

Upskirting

Upskirting typically involves taking a picture under a person's clothing without them knowing, with the intention of viewing their genitals or buttocks to obtain sexual gratification or cause the victim humiliation, distress or alarm

Indeed from 12th April 2019 Upskirting became a criminal offence with offenders facing up to 2 years in prison and risk being placed on the Sex Offenders register.

The College will support any individual of upskirting and you should notify any member of College Staff and/or complete the information on the Report a concern form.

Hate Crimes

Hate Crime (also known as bias-motivated crimes) occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her perceived membership of a certain social group, usually defined by racial group, religion, sexual orientation, disability, class, ethnicity, nationality, age, gender, gender identity, social status or political affiliation.

Hate Crime generally refers to criminal acts that are seen to have been motivated by bias against one or more of the types above. Incidents may involve physical assault, damage to property, bullying, harassment, verbal abuse or insults, or offensive graffiti or letters (hate mail).

New College Durham is a safe, neutral place where people can report a Hate Crime as a victim, witness or third party without the having to visit a police station or have an officer call to see them. The College will provide support for the victim through a partnership of relevant specialist agencies; it can be done without revealing the victim's personal details. Only with the victim's consent will police investigate the crime.

If you are victim of a hate crime or know of someone who is a victim you must report this to the College or Police. The presentation link provides key contacts for the police.

You can report a concern to the College by clicking on this link.

e-Safety

E-safety - provides guidance on managing your digital footprints and "think before you post"

The internet is a brilliant place to connect with others, to be creative and to discover new things - however it is also can be a very dangerous place to be, but these dangers can be mitigated by a little common-sense and this section on E-safety points you to a number of key documents.

Two key pieces of advice...

  • always, always "think before you post" - once it is uploaded you can never get the post back.
  • If you do/post something embarrassing - tell someone you trust at the College we have trained individuals to help you.

    In certain circumstances you may be encouraged into exposing yourself on web cam, it will not stop with the first incident. This is known as "sextortion" this is also called blackmail in which they want you to do things you don't want to, or to give them money. Further information on sextortion click here.

    You can report a concern to the College by clicking on this link.

Sexual Violence

Sexual violence is any unwanted sexual act or activity. There are many different kinds of sexual violence, including but not restricted to: rape, sexual assault, child sexual abuse, sexual harassment, rape within marriage/relationships, trafficking, sexual exploitation, and ritual abuse. Sexual violence can be committed by someone known and even trusted, such as a friend, colleague, family member, partner or ex-partner as well as by strangers and acquaintances. Sexual violence can happen regardless of sex, age, carer responsibility, class, disability, gender identity, immigration status, ethnicity, geography or religion.

Sexual violence can take many forms, it can includes but is not limited to:

  • forcing or coercing someone into sexual activities against their will
  • using objects violently or in a non-consensual way during sex
  • forcing or coercing someone to have sex with another person when they do not wish to
  • sharing sexual stories or images about someone without their consent
  • forcing or coercing someone to perform sexual acts in front of others when they do not want to
  • forcing or coercing someone to mimic pornography
  • forcing or coercing someone to be photographed or filmed during sex/whilst sexual abuse is taking place
  • forcing or coercing someone to watch or look at pornography
  • calling someone sexual or derogatory names

Sexual violence is always the fault of the perpetrator regardless of what the survivor has previously done, the clothes they are wearing or if they are drunk or have taken drugs.

Sexual consent

Sexual consent is, by law, where someone agrees by choice to that sexual activity and has the freedom and capacity to make that choice. Someone may not have the freedom and capacity to consent if they are scared for their life or safety or for the life or safety of someone they care about, or if they are asleep or unconscious or incapacitated through alcohol or drugs.

Consent to sexual activity may be given to one sort of sexual activity but not another. Consent can be withdrawn at any time during sexual activity and each time activity occurs.

Sexual activity without consent is rape or sexual assault and is a crime.

Anyone affected by these forms of violence and abuse should contact the Police immediately.

The College will support any individual of sexual violence and you should notify any member of College Staff and/or complete the information on the Report a concern form.

Forced Marriage

A Forced Marriage is 'when one or more parties do not consent to the marriage or consent is obtained using duress'. This is not the same as an arranged marriage where proper consent is necessary. It is against the law to force someone into a marriage. You can report a concern to the College by using the Report a Concern Form.

Honor Based Violence

Honour based violence is when a form of abuse (for example: violence, threats of violence, rape, abduction, imprisonment and even murder) is committed in the name of honour. The perception that a family's honour has been compromised by a young person's dress, behaviour, being LGBT, being too Westernised or falling in love with someone not chosen by the family can lead to this type of violence or abuse. You can report a concern to the College by using the Report a Concern Form.